Brain’s delta wave frequency band — 0.1 Hz to 4 Hz
Delta frequencies fall in the range of around 0.1 Hz to 4 Hz, and constitute the lowest range of brain frequencies. Brain activity in this frequency range correlates with the states of deep sleep, along with some anomalous processes.
In addition to being present in stages 3 and 4 of sleep, delta frequencies are also commonly predominant in infants under one year. The delta waves are the slowest and have the highest amplitude. They help the brain to focus inwardly, while decreasing awareness of the outside environment. These waves are helpful in attaining a state of connection with the unconscious mind.
High-performing individuals are able to decrease their delta waves to attain top levels of performance. On the other hand, individuals who are unable to decrease their delta wave activity in the brain can experience difficulty focusing. For example, individuals with attention deficit disorder (ADD) usually experience elevated delta wave activity when attempting to focus. Therefore, individuals with ADD have limited ability to stay focused and pay attention. This inability to focus can occur in anyone who has abnormal and unsuppressed delta wave reactions.
The inability to regulate delta wave activity impedes an individual’s ability to react fast to external stimuli. It can also be the cause of an inability to navigate the outside world with ease.
Brain’s theta wave frequency band — 4 Hz to 8 Hz
Brain oscillations in the theta waves frequency band fall between approximately 4 Hz and 8 Hz. The brain activity in this frequency range often correlates with creativity, emotions, and sensations. Theta brain frequencies are present during inwardly focused brain activity, as well as the transitional state between alertness and sleep. Theta oscillations are often prominent during states of creative activities, meditation, and spiritual contemplation.
Furthermore, activity in the theta range correlates with states of learning and memory creation and integration. It can also be present during anxious episodes.
In comparison with delta waves, theta waves are faster. However, despite representing faster brain activity, they are also present during sleep. Theta wave activity commonly correlates with distracted or dreamy states and experiences.
Brain’s alpha wave frequency band — 8 Hz to 12 Hz
Brain oscillations in the alpha wave frequency band fall between approximately 8 Hz and 12 Hz. Alpha wave activity correlates with states that combine relaxation, alertness, and awareness. For example, the brain’s alpha wave activity is present during some stages of meditation. Alpha band activity is also associated with mental resourcefulness, while enhancing a general sense of relaxation.
During alpha wave activity, individuals can accomplish a variety of tasks more efficiently. Alpha brain oscillations promote a sense of calm, allowing the brain to prioritize and to focus better. They are also commonly present in normal adults and teenagers in relaxed states. Alpha wave activity also correlates with a state of alertness, but it is absent when the brain is performing specific tasks.
Furthermore, the brain’s alpha oscillations are present during relaxed learning and while applying knowledge. They occur in both classroom and work environments.
It is possible to increase your brain’s alpha activity by doing deep breathing exercises, or simply by closing your eyes. If you wish to lower your alpha state, you could try doing a complex task, like a mathematical calculation. Alpha wave activity promotes the ability to easily switch between tasks while increasing inner awareness, balance, and calmness. It correlates with faster brain activity than that of delta and theta brain waves. Faster brain wave activity refers to activities in the states of alertness and the execution of cognitive tasks. Slow brain wave activity is present during dream-like and meditative states.
Brain’s beta wave frequency band — 13 Hz to 35 Hz
Beta frequencies produce faster brain activity than alpha frequencies. Beta frequencies begin at about 13 Hz. This faster frequency occurs during a state of alertness and consciousness. If you are performing an analytical task with your eyes open, your brain’s beta oscillations are at work. This happens because communication among the neurons is increasing.
In general, when you are processing information about the world, beta wave activity is evident in the brain. This activity is present during various tasks ranging from mathematical problem solving to decision making.
Furthermore, because of its significant range, the beta frequency band consists of three sub-ranges — low beta, mid beta, and high beta.
Low Beta Frequency Band — 13 Hz to 15 Hz
The low beta frequency range activity is associated with a more relaxed and focused state.
Mid Beta Frequency Band — 15 Hz to 18 Hz
The mid beta frequency range activity is associated with alertness, mental activity, and focus.
High Beta Frequency Band — 18 Hz to 35 Hz
The high beta frequency range activity is associated with higher levels of alertness and even agitation.
Brain’s gamma wave frequency band — 35 Hz to 100 Hz
The fastest of the five frequency bands is the gamma frequency. It is prominent when the brain is processing complex information that requires input from different parts of the brain. Intense thinking and problem solving are states that correlate with gamma wave activity. The brain oscillations in the gamma wave frequency band fall between approximately 35 Hz and 100 Hz.
Brain activity associated with a frequency of 40 Hz is of particular importance. The 40 Hz gamma wave activity is, presumably, present and needed for consolidation and complex processing of information from different parts of the brain. Whereas activity in this frequency range correlates with good memory performance, its deficiency correlates with learning issues and even disabilities.
Using photobiomodulation to modulate brain waves
Considering the importance of brain oscillations, Vielight offers several products that have been found to modulate brain waves using photobiomodulation. The Vielight Neuro Alpha device trains the brain for mainly alpha brain waveforms and improves basic brain network functions. The Neuro Gamma elevates the faster brain waves of beta and gamma, and downregulates the slower delta and theta waves. The new Vielight Neuro Pro device offers the versatility of delivering PBM in the range from 0 to 10,000 Hz.
Understanding the effects of brain oscillations can be helpful in analyzing, supporting, and improving brain wellness. As studies suggest, brain PBM is a non-invasive form of neurostimulation that can help to affect and modulate brain oscillations. PBM with light pulsing at specific frequencies can help modulate and normalize brain oscillations. Considering that brain oscillations represent neural activity, this means that brain PBM can affect neural activity.